Presidential Image Gallery

Controversy and Spanish Florida

November 30, 1816
Source: The Library of Congress

In 1817, Andrew Jackson’s unauthorized conquest of Florida ignited a national and international controversy. Instructed by President James Monroe only to subdue Seminole raids, Jackson exceeded the scope of his authority, capturing bastions at St. Marks and Pensacola and executing two British nationals whom he charged with abetting the Indians. Despite calls for punishment, President Monroe stood by Jackson.

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